Kız Kulesi (Azarbaycan)

Kız Kulesi (Azarbaycan)

The Maiden’s Tower is the most abundant and mysterious architectural abuse of Abşeron as well as Baku. The castle is a historical monument located near the coastal park (boulevard) in the southeastern part of the old castle walls (Inner City). The unfinished historical-architectural problems of this rare tower-shaped abode are overwhelming.

The height is 28 m, the diameter is 16.5 m on the first floor. The thickness of the first floor wall reaches 5 meters. The interior of the castle is divided into 8 pieces. Each floor is built with stones, covered with a domed ceiling. The castle began to operate as a museum in 1964 – the UNESCO World Heritage list was released in 2000 – [2].

This ceiling is made of stone and has circular dents. The dial is in the vertical line direction. It is possible to see the floor of the first layer when looking at the circular edge of the VIII folding ceiling. The entrance to the fortress is on the western side of the entrance, with an arched door 2 m high and 1.1 m from the previous surface [3].

One of the emblems of Azerbaijan, the Girl’s Castle has been repeatedly described above Azerbaijani monks [4] [5].

In recent years, the tradition of making the Nevruz Festival of festivals has been organized in Kız Kalesi and every year in the square around it

etymology
Although there are various opinions about the etymology of the name Kalenin, it is the legend to the girl who is endured the most on them (the daughter of Baku’s inn, according to some authorship) is mainly called Kız Kulesi. According to the legend, the girl, who was hiding in the room by her brother (the father of the monarch in some sources), put herself in the waters of the Caspian Sea from the top of the castle [7]. It named. According to the other version, it was named “Eye of the Eye” just before, and this name changed to “Façade of the Maiden Tower”.

Historical
Construction of Stamps of Azerbaijan, 2003-655.jpg
There is no monument that can be compared with the Maiden’s Tower in the history of architecture in terms of the fact that the discussions around the age of building are carried out in a surprisingly large time interval. There are experts who claim that the age of the monument began from the Sumerian period, as well as those who prove that it was built in the XII century. The time difference here is more than 3,000 years, not a few years, not even a few centuries, as it is in other strands of unknown construction date.

In an inscription on the fortress walls, these words were written in Arabic: “The tower of Mesut, the son of David”. Some researchers speculate that feudal dominance is the building of this person’s castle. However, it is possible to say that “the son of Davud ‘s son Mesut” is the architect who built the castle of the girl, if these locoic inscriptions are generally taken into account in the name of the architects [9]. Since the writing style and line of the book are close to the writing of the XII century, it is estimated that the girl’s castle was built during this period. On the other side, the castle (upper floor) was built this century, as many scholars have seen it used in the X-XII centuries from Kufic writings. However, some scientists claim that these ideas are wrong. Since the stones were used in the harmony harmony solution – lime mixture, archaeologists such as İlyas Babayev and Siyah Ahmedov came to a definite conclusion. They are based on the first monument of the first millennium in Kebel. Since the monument was built with a mixture of lime like this, the Tower of the Girl belongs to the antiquity. Sara hanım verified this idea [10].

function
Many of the ideas put forward about the date of the construction of the girl’s tower, even if they contain convincing arguments, do not go ahead without speculation and inventing. The information spreading about the fact that the Maiden Tower in the press of the USSR period was allegedly a “temple of the Caesarean” planted in honor of the Roman Emperor Domitian (I century) is a kind of historical and scientific relief.

Functionally, Ziggurat’s Absseron option for the girl’s tower, Zoroastrian temple, silence tower, eye tower, Observatory, passive defense structure etc. contradictory views have been put forward. Professor Cafer Koçasi says,

“There is a characteristic aspect of tower-typed monuments built for long-term passive defense immediately at the monument, without regard to the purpose of building the Fortress of Girls before: the walls are very thick (5 m below, 4 m above), the first and second floors the stairs are not structured in the wall, the third well-opening water well is opened in the wall, the bordering castle wall adjacent to the body is going up, etc. The most important thing is the interior of the building with the round towers of Absalon’s columns in terms of interior space and they are selected with their large height and the majority of floors .”[12].
Photo taken in 1870 – year
The researchers who carried it on the basis of the structure of the wolves say that the building was related to the Zoroastrian period – Zoroastrian temple, temple of devotion, Mitra and Аnаhitä. According to the researchers, the Tower of Fire, the Temple of Fire, In the VIII-VII centuries, under the influence of the temples of the Hazara and the Med, the old fire town “Fire Baquan” could be planted at the shores of the Caspian Sea, among the natural burning fires.

According to the opinion of many scholars, it is also based on the similarity of the Girls’ Tower to the Çırkale defense castle, and that it belongs to the Gilgilçay defense system. There are also specialists who belong to the V-VI centuries, stating the resemblance to the architectural elements of the female castle in the northern Albanian civilization. Historically, Baku, considered to be the southern city of the Caucasus Albania, was under the influence of the Sasanids. Predictably, the daughter-in-law Sasanian empire was involved in the system of martyrdom in the north, especially in the Albanian region.

The Maiden’s Tower, which had been damaged by various wars for centuries, was slowly restored and served in defense of the city together with the Baku Fortress in the Middle Ages. It also proves changes in the construction of the monument. The tower is in such a structure that when the city was conquered by the enemy, the ruler of the period or close to оlan people know that they can resist for a long time by closing their doors. Since all these are evident for the defense of important property, the imperative for the application of such defense measures for any temple, watchtower or watchtower can not be organized. [13] Of course, the use of the hand according to its own period can not be denied. We can refer to the resemblance of the girl’s castle to the spectacular towers (Merdekan, Ramana, Şüvelan, Nardaran)