Berlin Mauer (Germany)
The Wall of Berlin (German: Berliner Mauer) The wall, 46 km long, started construction in Berlin on 13 August 1961, with the decision of the East German parliament to prevent East German citizens from escaping to West Germany.
The border, which is also known as the “Shandmauer” for many years in the West, is a blockade of West Berlin, and on 9 November 1989 East Germany was demolished along with all its facilities following the declaration of the requesting citizens to the West.
Sharing of Berlin’s occupation forces
West and East Berlin Map, border gates, metro networks (Interactive map)
II. At the end of the World War, Germany lost its war, and the capital Berlin split into four occupation forces: American, French, British and Soviet. Soon afterwards, the Western alliance united the similar administrative units and turned into a single administration. The Soviet Union opposed this union. The Western occupation forces sought to rebuild Germany against the Soviets and establish a police station against communism. The Soviets also attempted to establish a new regime in East Germany against this attempt. The economy was largely Berlin based on socialism, the political administration being authoritarian, and the escape from East Germany to the West. The strict border between East and West Germany was drawn in 1952. Using Berlin metros only 270,000 people fled to West Germany, which had achieved great economic growth in the early 1950s until 1955. Over time, wire mesh and legislative changes could not prevent the escape to the West. The idea of building a barrier to prevent these escapes was finally brought to the conclusion that the former Socialist Unity Party (SED) leader Walter Ulbricht consulted and approved Soviet leaders for something to be done. As a matter of fact, the Soviet Union adopted the Berlin Wall as a knitting solution as it regarded West Berlin as a center of mischief, capitalism, counter propaganda center within the borders of East Germany.
In order to surround the capitalist West Berlin in the direction of the USA within the East Germany, the Wall was built in a night on August 12-13, 1961, with the decision of the East German Parliament. His plans were completely confidential. So much so that the general secretary of the SED, Walter Ulbricht, on June 15, 1961, in a conference in East Berlin, in response to the question of the Western Berliner correspondent Annamarie Doherr, “Niemand hat die Absicht, eine Mauer zu errichten” no) is a clear proof of this. When the first formation of the wall prevented the transitions, the elevated minefields were totally blocked by the scouting soldiers’ watchdog towers.
Berlin Wall (1980)
In 1961, instead of the Berlin Wall, only a simple wire mesh was drawn. Later on, the Berlin Wall, also known as the “Shame Wall”, was built in the capitalist West, instead of this veneer, and this wire was redone on the wall. This wall between East and West Berlin was actually composed of two steel pieces, one 3.5 and the other 4.5 meters. The eastern side of the wall was painted in black to make it easier for people to escape. On the other hand, the side facing West Germany was filled with graphite and drawings. Along the wall along the east side were steel traps and minefields, 186 high observation towers and hundreds of lamps. Motorcycle and pedestrian policemen and dogs were also on the east side. There were 25 highway, railway and waterway border gates along the wall. Despite all these controls and surveillance, about 5,000 people managed to escape from the East to the West, including tunnels, balloons they made at home, and so on.
One of the biggest dramas in the escape from the East to the West with the wall also lived in Bernauer Strasse. Indeed, although the houses in these streets were located in the East, the fronts were in the West. At first, there were escapes to see injuries and injuries from the windows, then the windows of the houses were bricked to prevent this. Shortly after, these houses were completely demolished and walls were woven in their places. Ida Siekmann, known as the first person to lose his life while trying to escape from the East to the West, died here on 22 August 1961. Today, in this part of the old Berlin wall there are some remnants of the wall and a museum on the subject.
On August 24, 1961, for the first time, Gunter Litfin’s 24-year-old escape from the Spree River was fatal. The last person to lose his life with the bullets of border guards was Chris Gueffroy, who tried to escape on February 6, 1989, about 9 months before the wall collapsed. Although the number of those who are willing to cross the Berlin wall is still unknown, it is estimated that there are at least 86 and a maximum of 238 people. Along the wall, it is possible to encounter many small memories reminiscent of those who lost their lives here.
The reasons for the demolition
Eastern German citizens who crossed Checkpoint Charlien to West Berlin (November 10, 1989)